The INCREASE/INTER-ACT symposium took place in Copenhagen 9-10 October 2013 on:

Ecosystem responses to climate change from the Arctic to the Amazon: Present 'state of understanding' and future challenges for climate experiments.

Climate change affects fundamental drivers and controls of ecosystem functioning and will lead to changes in physical, chemical and biological processes in terrestrial ecosystems in all parts of the globe. This will have impacts on plant growth, plant and soil carbon sequestration and biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks and will affect species competition and biodiversity and ultimately lead to species extinction.

Experiments with climate factors have provided not only important understanding of the responses of biological processes and ecosystem functioning to these climatic changes but also a more general understanding of ecosystem structure and functioning and the links to the primary controls of these. Such understanding is fundamental if we are to explore possible future scenarios and mitigate and adapt to climate change.

The workshop aimed to provide a present state of understanding of ecosystem responses to atmospheric and climatic changes based on two decades of climate change experiments and to outline and discuss the needs and directions for future experiments and ecosystem modeling.

The program was a mixture of oral presentations, posters, group discussions and plenum summaries. The objective of the group discussions was to point out the major knowledge gaps as well as to provide guidelines for future experimental setups.